IELTS Nature Vocabulary

sustainable – having the ability to last for a long time (e.g. sources of energy) 

vegetation – plants (flowers, trees etc.) 

to cultivate – to grow things 

rural – describing the countryside 

urban – describing towns & cities 

conservation – keeping the natural environment unspoilt and looking after the plants and animals in it 

irrigation – providing water to the land 

contamination – pollution 

an impact – the effect of something 

a drought – a long period with little rainfall causing a region to become very dry 

Polar ice caps – the North & South Pole, where ice has melted in recent years 

a rainforest – a jungle 

a deforestation – the mass-clearing of trees 

venomous – poisonous e.g. snakes, spiders 

a dam – a huge wall across a river to stop floods

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